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Antibodies

Antibodies, also known as immunoglobulins, are divided into different types based on their structure and function. There are five primary classes of antibodies in mammals:IgG (Immunoglobulin G) - The most common type, present in all body fluids.IgA (Immunoglobulin A) - Found in high concentrations in the mucous membranes, particularly those lining the respiratory passages and the gastrointestinal tract, as well as in saliva and tears.IgM (Immunoglobulin M) - Usually the first antibody produced in response to an infection.IgE (Immunoglobulin E) - Associated mainly with allergic reactions.IgD (Immunoglobulin D) - Exists in small amounts in the blood and is important in the initial stages of the immune response.Each type plays a specific role in the immune system's defense against pathogens.Antibodies can also be categorized based on their role in research and diagnostic applications:Primary Antibodies: These are the main antibodies that directly bind to the specific antigen of interest in a sample. They are used to detect, measure, or purify a specific protein or other antigen.Secondary Antibodies: These are antibodies that bind to primary antibodies, rather than the antigen itself. They are generally conjugated with a dye or an enzyme and are used to amplify the signal and assist in the detection and quantification of the antigen.Secondary antibodies are chosen based on the class (such as IgG or IgM), species, and type of the primary antibody used in the experiment.

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