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Kinases are enzymes that catalyze the transfer of phosphate groups from high-energy, phosphate-donating molecules to specific substrates. This process, known as phosphorylation, is a key part of many cellular processes.Kinases are critical in metabolism, protein regulation, cellular signaling, cellular transport, secretory processes, and many other cellular pathways that allow the cell to function properly.There are various types of kinases, including protein kinases, lipid kinases, and carbohydrate kinases, each of which phosphorylate different types of molecules. Among these, protein kinases are the most widely studied because of their role in cell signaling and regulation.Protein kinases can further be divided into several groups including tyrosine kinases, serine/threonine kinases, and dual-specificity kinases, based on the specific amino acid they phosphorylate on the protein. Dysregulation of kinase activity can lead to diseases such as cancer, inflammation, and neurological disorders.Since kinases play critical roles in disease processes, they are often targeted in drug discovery and development. For example, kinase inhibitors are a common type of cancer therapy. These drugs work by blocking the activity of one or more kinases, thereby preventing the phosphorylation of proteins and disrupting the signaling pathways that promote cell division and survival.

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