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Catalytic receptors

Catalytic receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that have enzymatic activity. These receptors can directly influence cellular processes when a specific ligand binds to them, often through a process known as signal transduction.One of the most common types of catalytic receptors are receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). RTKs are activated when a ligand binds to the extracellular domain of the receptor, causing the receptor to dimerize (form a pair with another receptor). Dimerization leads to the activation of the kinase domain, which then phosphorylates tyrosine residues. This phosphorylation serves as a signaling event that can lead to various cellular responses, such as cell growth and differentiation.Another type of catalytic receptor is guanylyl cyclase, which produces cyclic GMP in response to ligand binding. This second messenger molecule can then activate other proteins within the cell.It's important to note that the ligands for catalytic receptors can be quite diverse, including hormones, growth factors, and cytokines. These receptors play a key role in many biological processes and can be a target for therapeutic interventions in various diseases. For example, many types of cancer are associated with mutations in RTKs that lead to their constant activation, and several cancer therapies are designed to inhibit these receptors.Catalytic receptors can be classified into several types based on their enzymatic activity. Some of the main types of catalytic receptors include:Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs): These are the most well-known catalytic receptors. They are activated by ligand-induced dimerization, which triggers autophosphorylation of tyrosine residues in the cytoplasmic domain. This phosphorylation serves as a docking site for downstream signaling proteins. RTKs include receptors for growth factors like epidermal growth factor (EGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).Receptor Serine/Threonine Kinases: These receptors primarily respond to members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily. When a ligand binds to these receptors, they phosphorylate serine or threonine residues instead of tyrosine residues.Receptor Guanylyl Cyclases (rGC): These receptors, when activated by ligand binding, convert GTP to cyclic GMP, a second messenger that can activate other proteins within the cell. An example is the atrial natriuretic peptide receptor (ANP receptor).Receptor-like Tyrosine Phosphatases: These receptors remove phosphate groups from tyrosine residues of specific proteins, which can have different effects on cell behavior depending on the proteins involved.Non-Receptor Tyrosine Kinases: While not technically receptors because they lack an extracellular domain for ligand binding, these proteins are often grouped with catalytic receptors because they have similar enzymatic activity. They are usually located in the cytoplasm and can be activated by various mechanisms.Receptor Tyrosine Kinase-like Orphan Receptors (ROR): These are a type of RTK that does not have a known ligand. They are still capable of sending signals within the cell, and are thought to be involved in various biological processes, including neural development and inflammation.These are just a few examples. There are many other types of catalytic receptors, and new ones are still being discovered. Moreover, each type of receptor can have several subtypes, each responding to different ligands and activating different signaling pathways.

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