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Titration and Karl Fischer Titration

Titration is a common laboratory method used to determine the quantity or concentration of a substance in a sample. It involves adding a known amount of a reagent (titrant) to the sample until the reaction reaches neutralization or the endpoint, which is the point at which the sample and titrant are in stoichiometric balance. The endpoint is usually indicated by a color change or a pH change. The volume of titrant used can then be used to calculate the concentration of the substance in the sample. Karl Fischer Titration is a specific type of titration that is used to determine the water content in a sample. This type of titration is particularly useful for measuring trace amounts of water in substances such as fuels, solvents, and pharmaceuticals. The titrant used in Karl Fischer Titration is a specially formulated solution containing iodine and a reaction stabilizer, which reacts with water to form hydriodic acid. The endpoint is indicated by a change in the electrical conductivity of the solution, which increases as the amount of water in the sample decreases. The amount of titrant used is proportional to the amount of water in the sample, and the concentration of water can be calculated from the volume of titrant used.
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