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Solid-state synthesis

Solid-state synthesis, also known as ceramic synthesis, is commonly used in chemical reactions initiated by solid-state starting materials in order to synthesize new solids with a structured structure. Reaction rate is an important characterization parameter in solid synthesis. Since purification techniques for the formed solids are very limited, the solid-state reaction must be complete. The reaction rate of a solid state reaction depends on the reaction conditions, including structural properties, the shape and surface area of the reactants, the diffusion rate, and thermodynamic properties related to nucleation/reaction. The end products include polycrystalline materials, single crystals, glass and thin-film materials that are widely used in energy and electronics applications. The physical and chemical properties of the final material depend on the chemical precursors and preparation techniques. The preparation techniques of modern solid materials are not limited to various ceramic methods. The common sol-gel process forms gels, coatings, and nanomaterials by successively heating, drying, and aging concentrated or colloidal solutions (" sol "). Solvothermal method is the heating of a solution in a closed pressurized container at a temperature above the standard melting point of the selected organic solvent. If the solvent is water, the method is called hydrothermal. A variety of synthesis methods to form solid materials, such as vapor deposition, intercalation reaction, single crystal growth and nanomaterials synthesis, can be classified as solid state synthesis.
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